5th Joint US-European Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting

Le Centre Sheraton Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Jul 15 - Jul 20, 2018

Jul 16 - Jul 19, 2018




ASME Freeman Scholar Lecture

Ramesh K. Agarwa

Professor Ramesh K. Agarwal
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Washington University in St. Louis

Fluid Mechanics of Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

The lecture will begin by describing the need for Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) and current GCS practice in US and Worldwide. It will then describe the basic mechanisms for trapping CO2 in Saline aquifers and their spatial and temporal scales of sequestration. It will be followed by the presentation of analytical and numerical modeling of underground multiphase flow including the models of relative permeability and capillary pressure for the geological formation. Various CO2 injection strategies will be discussed including their optimization for maximum CO2 storage and minimum plume migration. Finally, the simulations will be presented for model benchmark problems followed by the simulations of pilot and industrial scale GCS projects. The talk will be concluded by offering perspective on opportunities, challenges and future directions.

Bio: Ramesh Agarwal received B.S. in Mechanical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India in 1968, M.S. in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1969, and PhD in Aeronautical Sciences from Stanford University in 1975. Prior to joining the faculty at Washington University in 2001 as William Palm Professor of Engineering, he was the Chair of the Aerospace Engineering Department at Wichita State University from 1994 to 1996 and the Executive Director of National Institute for Aviation Research from 1996 to 2001. From 1994 to 2001, he was also the Bloomfield Distinguished Professor at Wichita State University. From 1978 to 1994, Professor Agarwal worked in various scientific and managerial positions at McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories in St. Louis. He became the Program Director and McDonnell Douglas Fellow in 1990. From 1976 to 1978, Professor Agarwal was a researcher for the National Research Council at NASA Ames Research Center. Professor Agarwal has received many honors and awards for his research and educational contributions. In 2017, American Society of Mechanical Engineers awarded him the Honorary Membership. In 2015, the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) awarded him the Isadore T. Davis Award and the Archie Higdon Distinguished Mechanics Educator Award. In 2015, Professor Agarwal received an Honorary Fellowship from the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Reed Aeronautics Award from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the International Medal of Honor from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). He is a Fellow of ASME, AIAA, SAE, ASEE, IEEE, American Physical Society and American Association for Advancement of Science.

ASME Fluids Engineering Award Lecture

Upendra Singh Rohatgi

Dr. Upendra Singh Rohatgi
Senior Scientist
Brookhaven National Laboratory

Scaling Analyses for Complex Systems

Scaling analyses has been used in many fields such as finance, psychology, engineering, biology, data mining etc. Basic idea is to develop relationship between various variables, extrapolate to larger set to make predictions and validate extrapolation. Scaling analyses for thermal hydraulics systems is different due to complexity and is a process to identify non-dimensional groups representing relevant phenomena governing the flows. This is a necessary first step in identifying and ranking important phenomena needed to assess similitude and distortions. Scaling analyses provides a systematic method of prioritizing analytical model development and supporting relevant experimental program for specific applications. Scaling considerations are easier for simple systems with few phenomena. However, the complex systems need a systematic approach such as hierarchal two step (H2S) method or fractional scaling analyses (FSA).

 Complexity of a system comes from geometry, transient behavior and type of fluid that is a single phase or two phases, steady state or transient. There are examples from aerodynamics, turbomachinery, and nuclear reactors were scaling analyses has been extensively used. Examples of applications for simple and complex systems will be provided to illustrate the methods.

Bio: Dr. Upendra Rohatgi is on scientific staff of Brookhaven National laboratory since 1975 and is currently a senior scientist. He received his bachelor of technology degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur in 1970 and his Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, both in Mechanical Engineering. He has contributed to Fluids Engineering in the areas of pumps for aircraft fuel system and nuclear reactors, nuclear reactor system, enhanced heat transfer for li-ion batteries for automobile application, and development of fluidized bed furnaces. He served as chair of Fluids Engineering Division and has also served as technical associate editor for the Journal of Fluids Engineering for three years. He taught graduate level courses in Fluid Mechanics and Heat transfer at State University of New York in Stony Brook. He has been contributing to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission programs for thermal-hydraulic code development, validation, scaling methods and uncertainty analyses for different scenarios for PWR and BWR since 1975. He has consulted with AECL and OPG Canada for uncertainty methods for CANDU transient analyses. In addition, he is leading a task force for developing guidelines for multi-physics code validation and uncertainty methods for NEA-OECD expert group. He is currently a thermal-hydraulic consultant to Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards of USNRC. He has authored over 100 papers. He has chaired two NASA Scientific Review Panels for Microgravity Experiments in shuttle, 1997 and in Space Station-Mir 2013.

Plenary Lecture

Peter Ehrhard

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Peter Ehrhard
Fluid Mechanics
Biochemical & Chemical Engineering
Dortmund University of Technology

Liquid/liquid slug flow and mass transport in a micro-capillary reactor - simulation and experiment (Christian Heckmann and Peter Ehrhard)

The mass transport in multiphase systems has wide applications in Chemical Engineering, e.g. in reactors or extraction operations. Particularly with regard to the mass transport, liquid-liquid systems have a specific significance, since the mass transport across the interface is often governed by the properties of both liquid phases – this may be termed a conjugate problem. Here, numerical simulations allow for a detailed investigation of the mass transport, while experimental approaches remain usually restricted to integral information. In the present investigations, an extraction process is numerically simulated and the results are compared to integral data from experiments. The process is performed in a micro-capillary reactor, consisting of a slug generator, a straight circular pipe to achieve sufficient residence time, and a phase separator. The numerical model captures all fields of a single (periodic) element of the slug flow. For this, a stationary interface is imported from two-phase level-set computations of the flow and used to generate numerical grids fitted to the interface from both sides. An explicit coupling of the computational domains of both phases at the interface, finally, allows for the simulation of both the hydrodynamic and the concentration fields. This numerical treatment has been validated against analytical reference cases, it is valid for small concentrations of the dissolved species. For the experimental validation, a standard extraction system is utilized. The rate of extraction is measured for varied volumetric flow rate for eight different lengths of the circular pipe, i.e. for eight different mean residence times. Hereby, the effect of the slug generator and the phase separator are both inherently present in the experimental data. Through the comparison of simulation and experiment, e.g. the progress of the extraction along the pipe and the effect of the slug generator can be extracted and validated.

Curriculum vitae P.E. (short)

  • Diploma in Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, 1984;
  • D., Fluid Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, 1988;
  • Postdoc, Engineering Sciences & Applied Mathematics,
    Northwestern University, Evanston, 1988-1989;
  • Habilitation, Fluid Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, 1995;
  • Professor for Fluid Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, University of Karlsruhe, 2002;
  • Full Professor for Fluid Mechanics, Dortmund University of Technology, 2006;
  • Mary Shepard B. Upson Visiting Professor, Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering,
    Cornell University, Ithaca, SS 2012;

Plenary Lecture

Stavros Tavoularis

Professor Stavros Tavoularis
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Ottawa

Flow Instability and Coherent Structures in Complex Channels

Flows in channels with complex cross sections occur in many important technological and biological systems. Examples include oil-drilling wells, nuclear reactor fuel channels, inundated rivers, trains passing through tunnels, fuel cells and catheterized arteries. Such flows are susceptible to complexity that is absent from flows in tubes or other simple channels. Spanwise velocity profiles that contain inflection points are vulnerable to inviscid instability, which may generate vortex streets and result in early transition to turbulence. A recent global stability analysis has demonstrated that this type of instability, referred to as gap instability, is present in annular channels with very small eccentricity at Reynolds numbers that are much smaller than critical values in concentric channels. Early experimental observations of such phenomena could not be reproduced with the use of conventional steady-state turbulence models, but time-dependent turbulence modelling (URANS and LES) has produced fairly realistic simulations of both the instability process and the vortex street formation. In many applications, these phenomena have beneficial consequences, including drag reduction, intense mixing and improved heat and mass transfer.

Bio: Following doctoral studies and a research appointment at The Johns Hopkins University, Professor Stavros Tavoularis has, since 1980, been a member of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Ottawa, where he served terms as Department Chair, Director of the Ottawa-Carleton Institute for Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Interim Vice Dean, Research. He is Director of the uOttawa Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, supervising a large team of researchers on turbulence, turbulent mixing, vortex dynamics, aerodynamics, nuclear reactor thermalhydraulics, cardiovascular mechanics and design of flow apparatus and instrumentation. He has initiated fundamental and applied research projects supported by grants and contracts from NSERC, MRC, NRC, DND, EMR, AECL (CNL), NRCan, UNENE, CNSC, Pratt and Whitney Canada and others and has served as a consultant to government and industry. Professor Tavoularis has been elected as a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada, a Fellow of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering and a Fellow of the American Physical Society and is a recipient of the George S. Glinski Award for Excellence in Research and the 2017 Medal of the Canadian Congress for Applied Mechanics. He is the author of the graduate textbook Measurement in Fluid Mechanics, published by Cambridge University Press, and numerous research articles and reports.

Plenary Lecture

Martin Brouillette

Professor Martin Brouillette
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Université de Sherbrooke

Using guidewire-mediated shock waves to revascularize chronic total occlusions

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. This disease includes chronic total occlusions (CTOs), which are complete blockages of an artery. Unlike partial occlusions, CTOs are difficult to cross percutaneously using conventional guidewires (thin and flexible wires) because of the fibrotic and calcified nature of the blockage. We report on the design and testing of a new minimally-invasive device used to cross CTOs in the coronary and peripheral vasculature. The device is based on a novel shock wave generator which exploits inverse dispersion in solid waveguides to amplify the signal of broadband piezoelectric ultrasound transducers to produce high-amplitude (~500 Bars) and short duration (~1 microsecond) pressure pulses. These pulses are then propagated into small (~0.35 mm) non-dispersive waveguides, which have the same dimensions and properties as conventional cardiology guidewires, for percutaneous introduction into the vascular system. The distal tip of the non-dispersive waveguide is then placed in contact with the occlusion where the arrival of the shock waves locally erodes the hard calcified components of the CTO, enabling the waveguide to progress across the lesion. The presentation will describe in detail the novel shock wave generator and mechanism of action and present some of the pre-clinical and clinical results with the device on surrogates, ex-vivo arteries, live animals and humans.

Bio: Martin Brouillette holds a B. Eng. from McGill University and a Ph.D. in Aeronautics from Caltech. Currently, he is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the Université de Sherbrooke and the Head of the Shock Wave Research Laboratory. Professor Brouillette is the originator of several technology development projects in bio-engineering and micro-engineering, based on gas dynamics and shock wave physics. He is the holder of numerous patents for biomedical devices and sensor systems for biological and engineering applications, and has been one of the creators of three start-ups exploiting these technologies. In particular, he is the Founder and Chief Technical Officer of SoundBite Medical Solutions Inc.